Skip navigation

Setiap orang berhak memiliki mimpi. Begitu pula dengan saya, saya mempunyai banyak sekali mimpi. Mimpi yang saya maksud disini bukanlah mimpi yang terjadi pada saat kita tidur.

Mimpi yang saya maksud disini adalah cita-cita, keinginan, atau bisa kita sebut juga impian. Mungkin bayak orang bertanya “Buat apa sih kita mempunyai mimpi?” , “ngapain sih kita berangan-angan?”

Pertanyaan itu kadang-kadang terdengar di telinga kita. Bermimpi itu menrurut saya sangat penting. Karena, dengan mimpi itulah seseorang mempunyai kekuatan untuk menjalani hidup.

Saya mempunyai mimpi untuk menjadi manusia yang berguna untuk banyak orang. Atau biasa disebut menjadi terang dan garam dunia. Mungkin kalimat tersebut terdengar familiar. Karena kalimat tersebut terdapat dalam Alkitab.

Mungkin, saat ini saya diibaratkan hanyalah sebuah lilin kecil, tapi saya akan berusaha menjadi secercah cahaya untuk menerangi orang di sekeliling saya. Itulah mimpi saya.

Jika berbicara mimpi, saya menjadi teringat pada seseorang yang menjadi idola saya pada saat ini. Dia adalah yang menjadi panutan untuk menggapai semua mimpi saya, bagaimana dia bisa mencapai posisi orang nomor satu di sebuah Negara nomor satu di dunia. Betul, Dia adalah Barack Obama.

Barrack Obama yang lahir sebagai keturunan kulit hitam, tidak putus asa menggapai mimpinya untuk mendiami Gedung Putih. Padahal bila kita telisik lebih jauh., di bukunya “dari menteng menuju gedung putih”. Ia bercerita bahwa sewaktu tinggal di Indonesia tepatnya di menteng dalam. Ia mengalami kehidupan yang sulit. Karena ayahnya yang orang Indonesia gajinya pas-pasan, sehingga ibunya harus mencari tambahan uang sebagai pengajar bahasa inggris di kedutaan besar amerika serikat dengan naik bus Ekonomi yang panas dan pengab.

Kesusahan yang dialaminya tak membuatnya berputus asa malah oleh karena diasuh ibunya yang disiplin, dan didorong kemauan dan kepercayaan diri yang tinggi ia bisa menjadi seorang yang kita kenal seperti saat ini. Dalam sebuah buku Renungan Harian, saya pernah membaca bahwa Obama kecil pernah membuat sebuah puisi tentang keinginannya menjadi Presiden yang dibaca oleh gurunya. Dan ternyata mimpinya terwujud.

Mimpi tanpa keyakinan adalah sia-sia belaka. Semangat itulah yang seharusnya kita tiru dari Barrack Obama, Optimisme yang membara dengan Motonya “Yes, We Can!” bisa membuatnya menjadi Presiden kulit hitam pertama di Amerika serikat. Terlepas dari kontroversi akan kedatangannya ke Indonesia, Obama adalah bukti sukses dari Mimpi, Keyakinan, dan Kerja Keras. Semoga hal ini dapat menjadi inspirasi untuk kita semua.B


Pasti kalian udah pada tahu kan kalo di indonesia, banyak banget aliran” atau ajaran” yang sesat. mulai dari Lia Eden, ampe yang baru” ini yang ngaku sebagai nabi terakhir di Sulawesi Selatan.

Nah, kalian udah pernah denger belum agama terbaru berbau Digital nan Modern. kalo belum tau. nih gw kasih tau! hehehe…
nama agamanya itu Googlism.

yap! Mereka penganut googlism menganggap bahwa google itu tuhan.
eitz, jangan heran dulu..

karena ternyata eh, ternyata mereka punya alasan kenapa google itu bisa disebut tuhan.

1. Tuhan itu maha tahu. nah, para googlisme itu juga menganggap bahwa google maha tahu. ini dibuktikan oleh para pelajar dan mahasiswa kayak gw. kalo ada tugas dari guru atau dosen yang susah. yah, tinggal copy paste dari google aja.

2.Kata para pemuka agama Tuhan itu ada dimana-mana, nah. si google juga pun begitu. semua orang sekarang ini bisa mengakses google dari mana” dari HP, dari Laptop and dari desktop juga bisa. iya kan?

3.Tuhan menjawab doa, nah google pun begitu. misalnya seorang ibu menderita kanker. lalu ia pun mensearch pengobatan kanker. dan dengan seketika ia mendapatkan informasi tentang pengobatan kanker. dan akhirnya sembuh.

4.Tuhan itu kekal, kata orang pinter “Google berpotensi abadi. Ia tidak dapat dianggap sebagai fisik yang seperti diri kita sendiri. Algoritmanya yang menyebar di banyak server, jika salah satu yang dibawa atau rusak, niscaya yang lain akan mengambil tempatnya.” jadi alias Google itu bisa aja Abadi selamanya.

5. Tuhan itu baik, yap kata si googlism pun begitu katanya “Google tidak bisa berbuat kejahatan”.

dan yang paling unik mereka sangat pintar meniru ajaran Kristiani. contohnya aja mereka menpunyai 10 perintah google yang di adaptasi dari 10 perintah Allah (Taurat) yang diambil dari kitab perjanjian lama Alkitab.

——————————————————————————————-
10 Perintah tuhan Google

Thou shalt have no other Search Engine before me, neither Yahoo nor Lycos, AltaVista nor Metacrawler. Thou shalt worship only me, and come to Google only for answers – Jangan percaya Search Engine yang lain selain Google

Thou shalt not build thy own commercial-free Search Engine, for I am a jealous Engine, bringing law suits and plagues against the fathers of the children unto the third and fourth generations – Jangan membangun Search Engine sendiri karena Google sangat pencemburu

Thou shalt not use Google as a verb to mean the use of any lesser Search Engine – Jangan gunakan kata Google untuk menyebut Search Engine yang lain

Thou shalt remember each passing day and use thy time as an opportunity to gain knowledge of the unknown – Gunakan waktumu untuk mencari informasi-informasi baru

Thou shalt honor thy fellow humans, regardless of gender, sexual orientation or race, for each has invaluable experience and knowledge to contribute toward humankind – hormati sesama manusia tanpa pandang ras ataupun jenis kelamin karena mereka juga punya penegetahuan yang kontribusinya dapat dipakai semua manusia

Thou shalt not misspell whilst praying to me – Jangan salah mengeja saat berdoa.

Thou shalt not hotlink – Jangan membuat hotlink

Thou shalt not plagiarise or take undue credit for other’s work – jangan menjiplak karya orang lain

Thou shalt not use reciprocal links nor link farms, for I am a vengeful but fair engine and will diminish thy PageRank. The Google Dance shall cometh – Jangan menggunakan link timbal balik karena akan menurunkan pagerank

Thou shalt not manipulate Search Results. Search Engine Optimization is but the work of Microsoft – Jangan memenaipulasi hasil pencarian dengan teknik-teknik SEO [Searh Engine Optimization]

————————————————————————————–

Selain punya 10 perintah google, mereka juga punya modifikasi doa bapa kami. yang bunyinya seperi ini :

Google kami, seni di cyberspace,
Domain suci, domain suci.
Milikmulah pencarian,
milikmulah hasil pencarian,
Pada 127.0.0.1 seperti di Googleplex.
Beri kami hari ini pencarian kami sehari-hari,
Dan ampunilah ’spam’ kami,
Seperti kami mengampuni orang yang memberi kami ’spam’.
Dan janganlah bawa kami ke dalam godaan,
Tetapi lepaskanlah kami dari Microsoft.
Milikmulah mesin pencari,
Dan kekuasaan,
Dan kemuliaan,
Selamanya.
Amin.

kalo kita lihat, diatas ada tulisan “lepaskanlah kami dari Microsoft” berarti secara
gak langsung mereka menganggap bahwa Microsof adalah hal yang jahat. ah, bisa aja deh nih googlism.

Menurut gw sih, tentang adanya agama nyentrik Googlism ini gak usah dianggep serius.
ini palingan cuma akal”an dari “Google Addict” supaya google gak kesaing ama mesin pencari yang lain. terutama saingan mereka yang terberat yaitu “Microsoft” yang udah ngeluarin mesin pencari bernama “Bing”.

Lagipula, malahan iman kita harusnya bertambah kuat. karena Tuhan (yang asli) telah menciptakan otak manusia dengan sangat cerdas sehingga mampu membuat program secanggih Google.

sehinga kalo kita butuh bantuan tinggal klik google saja. jadi, jangan menganggap google itu diatas kita apalagi menyamakan “dia” dengan Tuhan. menurut gw, mari kita anggap google hanya sebagai alat yang dibuat untuk membantu umat manusia.


Tadi siang gw nonton berita tentang terbongkarnya sebuah aib yaitu tentang Fasilitas-fasilitas mewah yang tersedia di sebuah penjara “Rutan Pondok Bambu”. yap! Fasilitas mewah di PENJARA!!!

Kenapa dikatakan mewah? karena di dalam penjara yang tujuannya untuk membuat seseorang insyaf dan kapok malah terdapat AC, Tv flat, Kasur spring bed, dan Tempat Karaoke.

kalo kayak gitu sih bukannya bikin insyaf tapi malah bikin tuh penjahat and koruptor betah.

Sebenernya gak cuma di Rutan Pondok Bambu aja yang kayak gitu. di Bandung sini pun Rutan Sukamiskin yang terkenal denagn rutan tempat koruptor ditangkap, fasilitasnya juga nggak kalah mewah. Malah hal ini sudah menjadi rahasia Umum karena udah berlangsung lama dan disengaja oleh pihak sipir.

Oh iya, Pada bulan desember yang lalu kebetulan temen gw “Alfi Yusrina Ramadhani”pernah berkunjung ke Rutan Pondok dan dia bertemu dengan hal” yang unik dan menarik.

dan ini dia investigasi temen gw di Rutan Pondok Bambu.

What I’ve got after back from visiting a friend of my friend at Rumah Tahanan Negara Pondok Bambu.

First, I wanna say to God: Thanks God, Im still in Your way.
Well, today was my first time visit a jail. It was super, cant say by word, and so far away from my thoughts.

Penjara. Rumah Tahanan Negara Pondok Bambu.
Sebelumnya saya tidak memiliki banyak imajinasi mengenai kondisi di dalam penjara, memikirkannya pun jarang. Ketika ada tawaran dari ci Joy untuk menjenguk salah satu temannya, tanpa berpikir panjang saya langsung menyetujuinya.

Kronologis pengalaman saya mengunjungi Rutan Pondok Bambu.
Saya pergi bersama 5 orang teman. Hal pertama yang wajib dilakukan apabila ingin mengunjungi tahanan adalah mengambil nomor antrian. Sekitar pukul 12.00 kami tiba di Rutan Pondok Bambu, kami sudah mendapat antrian masuk ke-93. Bayangkan! Sipir akan memanggil lima nomor setiap kalinya. Alhasil, tertahanlah kami di depan rutan kurang lebih satu setengah jam dengan cuaca matahari yang panas terik.

Sebelum memasuki gerbang hijau itu, ada pemandangan kenyataan negeri ini yang membuat saya tersenyum setengah hati. Saya melihat sebuah keluarga dengan nomor antrian 185—dengan amat mudah—menyelipkan uang Rp30.000,00 untuk masuk rutan tanpa harus mengantri kepada sipir penjaga gerbang. Jelas-jelas, di depan bangunan rutan itu terpasang papan BESAR mengenai pasal dilarang menerima pungli (pungutan liar). Sebagai info tambahan, ternyata apabila memberikan Rp50.000,00 kita dapat langsung masuk tanpa harus mengambil nomor antrian. See,How very simple this life? Just like enter Dufan.

Ketika nomor antrian kami dipanggil, kami diberikan resi untuk masuk ke dalam rutan dan gadget-gadget yang kami bawa harap dititipkan. Kami diarahkan untuk mengikuti garis yang mengantar kami pada pos pemeriksaan pengunjung. Ternyata bayangan saya mengenai pemeriksaan yang ketat itu salah besar. Pemeriksaan rutan Pondok Bambu sangat tidak ketat, pengunjung tidak diraba-raba, barang bawaan pengunjung tidak di geledah seperti bandara, tidak ada dektektor bom seperti di mall-mall. Mungkin, untuk para teroris yang membaca tulisan saya dapat menjadi referensi menarik. Atau, kalau ada pengedar narkoba yang sedang online, silakan berjualan dengan bebas barang dagangan, Anda.

“Selamat datang di Rutan Pondok Bambu,” begitulah yang terbesit di benak saya begitu memasuki gedung bagian dalam. Kalau dari depan terlihat gerbang tinggi berwarna hijau, dari dalam akan terlihat seperti sekolah negeri yang muridnya menggunakan jaket hijau dan oranye. Suasananya sangat mirip sekolah yang sedang membagikan raport. Ramai sekali! Jangan harap menemukan ruang pemanggil tahanan seperti di film “Prison Break”! Bayangan saya tentang penjara yang tertata tertib, dan teratur seolah-olah runtuh ketika langkah pertama menginjak halaman rutan Pondok Bambu.

Saya tidak melihat sipir sedikit pun setelah memasuki arena berkunjung. Di manakah mereka bersembunyi? Untuk memanggil tahanan yang hendak kita kunjungi, kita perlu merogoh kocek—sayangnya saya kurang tahu berapa besarnya—untuk membayar calo, yang juga tahanan, itulah salah satu cara mereka untuk mendapatkan uang. Di sana tidak ada sipir yang bertugas memanggil para tahanan yang mendapat tamu.

Calo itu memberi kami sebuah karpet buluk hijau untuk duduk sambil menunggu tahanan yang ingin kami kunjungi. Sambil menunggu, kami ‘diwajibkan’ membeli minuman. Kami membeli The Botol Sosro dengan harga Rp6.000,00 per botol. Menarik bukan?

Tak berapa lama, datanglah tahanan yang saya maksud. Saya tidak mau menyebutkan namanya. Wanita itu sudah divonis penjara seumur hidup karena kasus penjualan narkoba. Ia sudah setahun tinggal di rutan itu. Ia tidak punya sanak saudara yang mengunjunginya, dua anaknya entah ada dimana sekarang.

Saya tidak banyak bicara atau pun bertanya, salah satu diantara kami memberikan banyak pertanyaan padanya. Banyak informasi mengenai kenyataan kehidupan penjara yang sudah saya duga-duga.
Pengetahuan baru yang saya dapatkan:
1. Kalian pikir masuk bui gratis? Bayar! Tahanan itu harus membayar Rp100.000,00 untuk memulai kehidupan barunya.
2. Kalian pikir tinggal di penjara gratis? Tidak, para tahanan harus membayar Rp50.000,00 seperti anak kos setiap bulannya.
3. Kalau kalian adalah tahanan yang tidak mempunyai kemampuan finansial yang memadai, kalian harus bekerja di dalam penjara. Pekerjaan yang ditawarkan ada: mencuci baju, membersihkan rutan, menjual rokok, menjual narkoba, menjual diri, menjual barang-barang yang kalian miliki, dan lain-lain.
4. Satu sel berisi sekitar 23-35 orang. Kalau WC di dalam sel mampet, para tahanan harus patungan uang untuk memperbaikinya. Kalau TV rusak, mereka harus patungan untuk membeli yang baru.
5. Jangan harap para tahanan akan diberi makan gratis. Jika tahanan hanya mengandalkan makanan dari pemerintah, mereka hanya mendapatkan nasi curah yang masih ada sisa gabah atau ada belatung, yang benar-benar tak layak dimakan. Untuk makan enak, mereka harus pergi membeli di kantin. Harga dua buah tempe Rp5.000,00, kalian bisa menghitung harga menu yang lain.
6. Kalian tidak hanya akan menemukan orang-orang bermuka gahar atau sangar, kalian malah mendapati artis, wanita berjilbab, dan wanita dengan dandanan super-duper menor dengan gincu murahan.
7. dan masih banyak lagi.

Penjara bukan suatu tempat pelajaran bagi tindak kriminal untuk bertobat. Penjara adalah sebuah sarana atau komunitas tempat berkumpulnya para penjahat. Bila kalian adalah seorang yang tidak mudah bergaul, sebaiknya hindari diri dari tindakan kriminal. Satu hal terpenting yang dibutuhkan bila membina kehidupan dalam penjara adalah sifat mudah bergaul.

Saya juga melihat Sheilla Marcia dan Jennifer Dunn yang sedang dikunjungi kerabatnya. Tak heran mereka begitu betah tinggal di Rutan Pondok Bambu. Saya melihat mereka begitu membaur dengan yang para tahanan lain, itu adalah kunci sukses pergaulan di rutan itu. Sheilla Marcia dengan kehamilannya yang tujuh bulan masih dapat berpenampilan cantik, ya iyalah di penjara aja masih sempet ekstensi bulu mata. Saya menemukan jawaban mengapa mimik Jennifer Dunn terlihat senang sewaktu kameramen “Insert“ mewawancarainya saat ia kedua kalinya masuk penjara.

Setelah pukul 16.00 WIB, bel berdentang tanda jam kunjung usai. Kami semua pulang membawa makna.

Pelajaran pertama: jangan terlalu banyak menonton Prison Break, sangat menjatuhkan martabat penjara di Jakarta.
Pelajaran kedua : selalu bawa alas duduk seperti mau ke Monas.

Multiply:http://gypsyholic.multiply.com/journal/item/308

Notes Alfi : http://www.facebook.com/notes/alfi-yusrina-ramadhani/what-ive-got-after-back-from-visiting-a-friend-of-my-friend-at-rumah-tahanan-neg/219746517837

AIDA concept

The AIDA model is more a model for effective selling rather than purchasing, although selling and purchasing can be considered as just two facet of the same selling process. The Name AIDA has been formed by first letter of four words that represent sequential steps in an effective selling process. These are Attention, Interest, Desire and Action.

As per AIDA model, a salesperson can achieve most effective results by following the four sequential steps while interacting with a prospective customer.
Attract attention: In this step the sales person only attracts the customers attention so that the customer will agree to continue the meeting with sales person and pay attention to what is being said.
Create interest: In this the step the salesperson provides information about the product that arouses the customer’s interest. This means that customer is interested to know more about the product, but is not really thinking of buying it.
Kindle Desire: Here the salesperson links the product and its features to the needs and wants of the customer. This results in customer perceiving the product as a means of satisfying his needs and wants, and doing this better than other competing products.
Take action: Just because the customer is convinced about utility of a product and desires to buy it does not mean that he or she will actually decide to buy it immediately. The salesperson must further lead the prospect to place the order. This is also called the process of closing the sale.

(1)The Golden Gate Bridge separates San Francisco Bay from the Pacific Ocean. (2) She went to Japan Center, where the buildings and restaurants looked familiar. (3) But San Francisco did not look anything like New York. (4) It crosses from San Francisco to Oakland. (5) Many homes have views of the bay and ocean. (6) Here she was able to talk with people in her native language. (7) She expected to find the tall skyscrapers she had seen on postcards of New York. (8) The Bay Bridge is majestic. (9) Miyoko’s first stop on her flight from Tokyo to the United States was San Francisco. (10) Miyoko especially liked the two bridges that cross San Francisco Bay. (11) From them she learned that San Francisco is a most hospitable city for people from the Orient. (12) After seeing the many hills and bridges, Miyoko was surprised to learn that San Francisco has a very large Japanese population. (13) Even more beautiful is the Golden Gate Bridge, stretching from San Francisco to Marin Country. (14) For one thing, it is all built on hill.

Answer:

(9)
(7)
(3)
(14)
(5)
(10)
(8)
(4)
(13)
(1)
(12)
(2)
(6)
(11)

Miyoko’s first stop on her flight from Tokyo to the United States was San Francisco. She expected to find the tall skyscrapers she had seen on postcards of New York. But San Francisco did not look anything like New York. For one thing, it is all built on hill. Many homes have views of the bay and ocean. Miyoko especially liked the two bridges that cross San Francisco Bay. The Bay Bridge is majestic. It crosses from San Francisco to Oakland. Even more beautiful is the Golden Gate Bridge, stretching from San Francisco to Marin Country. The Golden Gate Bridge separates San Francisco Bay from the Pacific Ocean. After seeing the many hills and bridges, Miyoko was surprised to learn that San Francisco has a very large Japanese population. She went to Japan Center, where the buildings and restaurants looked familiar. Here she was able to talk with people in her native language. From them she learned that San Francisco is a most hospitable city for people from the Orient.

1. Paragraph I
( 3 ) a. Next, add anti freeze to your windshield washer fluid; otherwise, the fluid will freeze and possibly break the container.
( 1 ) b. First, put on snow tires if you plan to drive on snowy, icy roads very often.
( TS ) c. Driving in winter, especially on snowy, icy roads, can be less trouble some if you take a few simple precautions*.
( 4 ) d. Finally, it is also a good idea to carry tire chains, a can of spray to unfreeze door locks and a windshield scraper in your car when driving in winter weather.
( 2 ) e. Second, check the amount of antifreeze in your radiator and add more if necessary.

2. Paragraph 2
( 3 ) a. Furthermore, researchers are continuing to work on the development of an efficient, electrically powered automobile.
( TS ) b. Researchers in the automobile industry are experimenting with different types of engines and fuels as alternative to the conventional gasoline engines.
( 1 ) c. One new type of engine, which burns diesel oil instead of gasoline, has been available for several years.
( 4 ) d. Finally, several automobile manufactures are experimenting with methanol, which is a mixture of gasoline and methyl alcohol, as an automobile fuel.
( 2 ) e. A second type is the gas turbine engine, which can use fuels made from gasoline, diesel oil, kerosene, other petroleum distillates*, or methanol.

3. Paragraph 3
( 3 ) a. Later on, people began to write on pieces of leather, which were rolled into scrolls.
( 1 ) b. In the earliest times, people carved or painted messages on rocks.
( 2 ) c. In the middle Ages, heavy paper called parchment was used for writing; books were laboratoriously copied by hand.
( 4 ) d. With the invention of the printing press in the middle of the fifteenth century, the modern printing industry was born.
( TS ) e. Some form of written communication has been used throughout the centuries.

4. Paragraph 4
( 3 ) a. If there had been a big storm on the day of a baby’s birth, the baby might have been named thunder cloud.
( TS ) b. American Indian names are very descriptive, for Indian were usually named for physical attribute, for an occurrence in nature, or for animal.
( 1 ) c. Grey Eagle, red dog, Big bear, and spotted wolf are example of Indians named after animals.
( 2 ) d. Indians with distinctive physical characteristics might be given such names as big foot or crooked leg.

5. Paragraph 5
( 2 ) a. For one thing, Individual I.Q. scores vary considerably.
( 1 ) b. Many experts also question whether I.Q. scores are related to intelligence.
( 3 ) c. Furthermore, most psychologists agree that intelligence test are biased* in favor of middle-class children.
( TS ) d. The validity* of standardized intelligence test is being seriously questioned by educators and physiologists.
( 4 ) e. In fact, motivation seems to be just as important as intelligence in determining a person’s ability to learn.

Exercise 4 (page 74)
Forests
1. a. Parks in California too general
(b.) Redwood trees in California
c. The age of redwoods too specific
2. a. The land in Scotland too general
b. How trees hold earth in place too specific
(c.) Forests in Scotland
3.(a.) the importance of forests
b. Taking vacations in forests too specific
c. large forest too general
Exercise 5 (page 75)
Some Facts about Weather
1. topic : The Discover of Lightning
2. topic : Kind of Clouds
Exercise 6 (page 76)
The Use of Water
1. topic : Where drinking water comes from
2. topic : Water problems
3. topic : How to use water carefully
Exercise 7 (page 77)
Galileo Galilei
1. topic : Galileo’s interest in science
2. topic : Galileo’s first experiment about gravitation
3. topic : The disagree of Galileo’s scientific ideas
Exercise 8 (page 78)
Popular Drinks
1. topic : How to make a tea
2. topic : The dissemination of coffee
3. Orange juice is one of the most popular cold drinks
Exercise 9 (page 80)
Some Ideas about Clothes
1. (b.) Clothes can tell a lot about a person
2. (b.) Clothes have to be chosen carefully when you travel
3. (c.) Clothes today are different from clothes of the 1800s
Exercise 10 (page 81)
Chemistry in the Past
1. (b.) Chemistry lived before the 1700s
2. (a.) Robert Boyle helped build the science of alchemy
3. (b.) Antoine Lavoisier studied the size and weight of water

QUESTIONS 1 – 8

Carbon tetrachloride is a colorless and inflammable liquid that can be produced by combining carbon disulfide and chlorine. This compound is widely used in industry today because of its effectiveness as a solvent as well as its use in the production of propellants.

Despite its widespread use in industry, carbon tetrachloride has been banned for home use. In the past, carbon tetrachloride was a common ingredient in cleaning compounds that were used throughout the home, but it was found to be dangerous: when heated, it changes into a poisonous gas that can cause severe illness and even death if it is inhaled. Because of this dangerous characteristic, the United States revoked permission for the home use of carbon tetrachloride in 1970. The United States has taken similar action with various other chemical compounds.

1. The main point of this passage is that
1. carbon tetrachloride can be very dangerous when it is heated
2. the government banned carbon tetrachloride in 1970
3. although carbon tetrachloride can legally be used in industry, it is not allowed in home products.
4. carbon tetrachloride used to be a regular part of cleaning compounds

Answer : 3. although carbon tetrachloride can legally be used in industry, it is not allowed in home products.

2. The word “widely” in line 2 could most easily be replaced by
1. grandly
2. extensively
3. largely
4. hugely

Answer : 2. extensively

3. The word “banned” in line 4 is closest in meaning to
1. forbidden
2. allowed
3. suggested
4. instituted

Answer : 1. forbidden

4. According to the passage, before 1970 carbon tetrachloride was
1. used by itself as a cleanser
2. banned in industrial use
3. often used as a component of cleaning products
4. not allowed in home cleaning products

Answer : 4. not allowed in home cleaning products

5. It is stated in the passage that when carbon tetrachloride is heated, it becomes
1. harmful
2. colorless
3. a cleaning compound
4. inflammable

Answer : 1. harmful

6. The word “inhaled” in line 7 is closest in meaning to
1. warmed
2. breathed in
3. carelessly used
4. blown

Answer : 2. breathed in

7. The word “revoked” in line 8 could most easily be replaced by
1. gave
2. granted
3. instituted
4. took away

Answer : 4. took away

8. It can be inferred from the passage that one role of the U.S. government is to
1. regulate product safety
2. prohibit any use of carbon tetrachloride
3. instruct industry on cleaning methodologies
4. ban the use of any chemicals

Answer : 4. regulate product safety

Questions 9 – 16

The next artist in this survey of American artist is James Whistler; he is include in this survey of American artist because he was born in the United States, although the majority of his artwork was completed in Europe. Whistler was born in Massachusetts in 1834, but nine years later his father moved the family to St. Petersburg, Russia, to work on the construction of a railroad. The family returned to the United States in 1849. Two years later Whistler entered the U.S. military academy at West Point, but he was unable to graduate. At the age of twenty-one Whistler went to Europe to study art despite familial objections, and he remained in Europe until his death.

Whistler worked in various art forms, including etchings and lithographs. However, he is most famous for his paintings, particularly Arrangement in Gray and Black No. 1: Portrait of the Artist’s Mother or Whistler’s Mother, as it is more commonly known. This painting shows a side view of Whistler’s mother, dressed I black and posing against a gray wall. The asymmetrical nature of the portrait, with his mother seated off-center, is highly characteristic of Whistler’s work.

9. The paragraph preceding this passage most likely discusses
1. a survey of eighteenth-century art
2. a different American artist
3. Whistler’s other famous paintings
4. European artists

Answer : 2. a different American artist

10. Which of the following best describes the information in the passage?
1. Several artists are presented
2. One artist’s life and works are described
3. Various paintings are contrasted
4. Whistler’s family life is outlined.

Answer : 2. One artist’s life and works are described

11. Whistler is considered an American artis because
1. he was born in America
2. he spent most of his life in America
3. he served in the U.S. military
4. he created most of his famous art in America

Answer : 1. he was born in America

12. The world “majority” in line 2 is closest in meaning to
1. seniority
2. maturity
3. large pices
4. high percentage

Answer : 4. high percentage

13. It is implied in the passage that Whistler’s family was
1. unable to find any work at all in Rusia
2. highly supportive of his desire to pursue art
3. working class
4. military

Answer : 3. working class

14. The word “objections” in line 7 is closest in meaning to
1. protests
2. goals
3. agreements
4. battles

Answer : 1. protests
15. In line 8, the “etchings” are
1. a type of painting
2. the same as a lithograph
3. an art form introduced by Whistler
4. an art form involving engraving

Answer : 4. an art form involving engraving

16. The word “asymmetrical” in line 11 is closest in meaning to
1. proportionate
2. uneven
3. balanced
4. lyrical

Answer : 2. uneven

Questions 17 – 23

The locations of stars in the sky relative to one another, do not appear to the naked eye to change, and as a result stars are often considered to be fixed in position. Many unaware stargazers falsely assume that each star has its own permanent home in the nighttime sky.
In reality, though, stars are always moving, but because of the tremendous distances between stars themselves and from stars to Earth, the changes are barely perceptible here. An example of a rather fast-moving star demonstrate why this misconception prevails; it takes approximately 200 years for a relatively rapid star like Bernard’s star to move a distance in the skies equal to the diameter of the earth’s moon. When the apparently negligible movement of the stars is contrasted with the movement of the planets, the stars are seemingly unmoving.

17. Which of the following is the best title for this passage?
1. What the Eye Can See in the Sky
2. Bernard’s Star
3. Planetary Movement
4. The Evermoving Stars

Answer : 4. The Evermoving Stars

18. The expression “naked eye” in line 1 most probably refers to
1. a telescope
2. a scientific method for observing stars
3. unassisted vision
4. a camera with a powerful lens

Answer : 3. unassisted vision

19. According to the passage, the distance between the stars and Earth are
1. barely perceptible
2. huge
3. fixed
4. moderate

Answer : 1. barely perceptible

20. The word “perceptible” in line 5 is closest in meaning to which of the following
1. Noticeble
2. Persuasive
3. Conceivable
4. Astonishing

Answer : 1. Noticeble

21. In line 6, a “misconception” is closest in meaning to a(n)
1. idea
2. proven fact
3. erroneous belief
4. theory

Answer : 3. erroneous belief

22. The passage states that in 200 years Bernard’s star can move
1. around Earths’s moon
2. next to Earth’s moon
3. a distance equal to the distance from Earth to the Moon
4. a distance seemingly equal to the diameter of the Moon

Answer : 4. a distance seemingly equal to the diameter of the Moon

23. The passage implies that from Earth it appears that the planets
1. are fixed in the sky
2. move more slowly than the stars
3. show approximately the same amount of movement as the stars
4. travel through the sky considerably more rapidly than the stars.

Answer : 4. travel through the sky considerably more rapidly than the stars.

1. So many people ARE waiting outside.ENGLISH : GRAMMAR (VERB SUBJECT AGREEMENT
2. The office next door WAS closed all day yesterday.
3. The print on the labels IS so small.
4. The carpet HAS so many stains on it that it NEEDS to be replaced.
5. The Trade Union members’ meeting IS downstairs in the Conference Room.
6. Mr. and Mrs. Taylor HAVE moved in the next door to us.
7. Two cars and a coach WERE involved in the motorway accident.
8. His application form for the new job, which WAS posted yesterday, HAS gone missing.
9. My neighbor PLAYS his music so loud that the walls almost VIBRATE.
10. Ricardo DOES not care whether United or City IS winning.
11. The bouquet of flowers HAS just arrived.
12. He MAKES use of the computer now, and even WRITES reports for the manager with it.