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1. Paragraph I
( 3 ) a. Next, add anti freeze to your windshield washer fluid; otherwise, the fluid will freeze and possibly break the container.
( 1 ) b. First, put on snow tires if you plan to drive on snowy, icy roads very often.
( TS ) c. Driving in winter, especially on snowy, icy roads, can be less trouble some if you take a few simple precautions*.
( 4 ) d. Finally, it is also a good idea to carry tire chains, a can of spray to unfreeze door locks and a windshield scraper in your car when driving in winter weather.
( 2 ) e. Second, check the amount of antifreeze in your radiator and add more if necessary.

2. Paragraph 2
( 3 ) a. Furthermore, researchers are continuing to work on the development of an efficient, electrically powered automobile.
( TS ) b. Researchers in the automobile industry are experimenting with different types of engines and fuels as alternative to the conventional gasoline engines.
( 1 ) c. One new type of engine, which burns diesel oil instead of gasoline, has been available for several years.
( 4 ) d. Finally, several automobile manufactures are experimenting with methanol, which is a mixture of gasoline and methyl alcohol, as an automobile fuel.
( 2 ) e. A second type is the gas turbine engine, which can use fuels made from gasoline, diesel oil, kerosene, other petroleum distillates*, or methanol.

3. Paragraph 3
( 3 ) a. Later on, people began to write on pieces of leather, which were rolled into scrolls.
( 1 ) b. In the earliest times, people carved or painted messages on rocks.
( 2 ) c. In the middle Ages, heavy paper called parchment was used for writing; books were laboratoriously copied by hand.
( 4 ) d. With the invention of the printing press in the middle of the fifteenth century, the modern printing industry was born.
( TS ) e. Some form of written communication has been used throughout the centuries.

4. Paragraph 4
( 3 ) a. If there had been a big storm on the day of a baby’s birth, the baby might have been named thunder cloud.
( TS ) b. American Indian names are very descriptive, for Indian were usually named for physical attribute, for an occurrence in nature, or for animal.
( 1 ) c. Grey Eagle, red dog, Big bear, and spotted wolf are example of Indians named after animals.
( 2 ) d. Indians with distinctive physical characteristics might be given such names as big foot or crooked leg.

5. Paragraph 5
( 2 ) a. For one thing, Individual I.Q. scores vary considerably.
( 1 ) b. Many experts also question whether I.Q. scores are related to intelligence.
( 3 ) c. Furthermore, most psychologists agree that intelligence test are biased* in favor of middle-class children.
( TS ) d. The validity* of standardized intelligence test is being seriously questioned by educators and physiologists.
( 4 ) e. In fact, motivation seems to be just as important as intelligence in determining a person’s ability to learn.


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